Full Text: Sixty Years Since Peaceful Liberation of Tibet The Information Office of the State Council, China's cabinet, on Monday published a white paper on the sixty years since peaceful liberation of Tibet. Following is the full text:
Sixty Years Since Peaceful Liberation of Tibet
On May 23, 1951 the Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet ("17-Article Agreement" for short) was signed in Beijing, marking the peaceful liberation of Tibet.
The peaceful liberation of Tibet was an important part of the cause of the Chinese people's liberation, a great event in the Chinese nation's struggle against imperialist invasion to safeguard national unity and sovereignty, an epoch-making turning point in the social development history of Tibet, and a milestone marking the commencement of Tibet's progress from a dark and backward society to a bright and advanced future.
Over the 60 years since its peaceful liberation, Tibet, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Central People's Government, has undergone a great historic process starting with democratic reform, and proceeding to the establishment of the Tibet Autonomous Region, socialist construction, and to the reform and opening-up era, made unprecedented achievements in the modernization drive, and witnessed great changes in its social outlook and profound changes in its people's life. These achievements were attained by all the ethnic groups in Tibet through concerted efforts, and vividly manifest how China implements the ethnic minority policy of promoting unity and achieving common prosperity and development.
This year marks the 60th anniversary of the peaceful liberation of Tibet. We review and summarize the spectacular historic process over the 60 years and demonstrate the great achievements in the development of New Tibet, so as to help Tibet achieve leapfrogging development and maintain lasting stability, while laying bare the lies of the Dalai clique, giving a better understanding of the true history of the 60 years since the peaceful liberation of Tibet to the outside world and enabling people around the world to get to know that socialist New Tibet is full of vigor and vitality.
I. Realizing the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet
1. Tibet has been an inseparable part of China since ancient times.
China is a unified, multi-ethnic country, and the Tibetan people are important members of the family of the Chinese nation. China's territory and history were created by the Chinese nation; the Tibetan group, as one of the centuries-old ethnic groups in China, has made important contributions to the creation and development of this unified, multi-ethnic country and to the formation and evolvement of the Chinese nation. Archaeological and academic research findings show that since ancient times the Tibetan people have been closely connected with the Han and other ethnic groups in blood relationship, language, culture and other aspects, and economic, political and cultural exchanges between Tibet and inland China have never been broken off. In the 13th century the central government of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) formally incorporated Tibet into the central administration by setting up the Supreme Control Commission and Commission for Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs to directly administer the military and political affairs of the Tibet region. Following this, the Yuan central government gradually standardized and institutionalized the administration of Tibet, including directly controlling the local administrative organs of Tibet and exercising the power of appointing local officials in Tibet, stationing troops there and conducting censuses. Following the Yuan system, the Ming (1368-1644) government implemented such policies as multiple enfeoffment, tributary trade and establishment of subordinated administrative divisions. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) strengthened the central government's administration of Tibet. In 1653 and 1713 the Qing emperors granted honorific titles to the 5th Dalai Lama and the 5th Panchen Lama, officially establishing the titles of the Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni, and their political and religious status in Tibet. From 1727 the Qing court established the post of grand minister resident in Tibet to supervise local administration on behalf of the central authorities. In 1751 the Qing government abolished the system under which the various commandery princes held power, and formally appointed the 7th Dalai Lama to administer the local government of Tibet, and set up the Kashag (cabinet) composed of four Kalons (ministers). In 1793, after dispelling Gurkha invaders, the Qing government promulgated the Ordinance by the Imperial House Concerning Better Governance in Tibet (29 Articles), improving several systems by which the central government administered Tibet. The Ordinance stipulated that the reincarnation of Dalai Lama and other Living Buddhas had to follow the procedure of "drawing lots from the golden urn," and the selected candidate would be subject to the approval by the central authorities of China. In the Qing Dynasty five Dalai Lamas were selected in this way, but two did not go through the lot-drawing procedure as approved by the Qing emperors. The Qing emperors deposed the 6th Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso, in 1706 and the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso, in 1904, and again in 1910.
The Revolution of 1911 toppled the Qing Empire, and the Republic of China (1912-1949) was founded. On March 11, 1912 the Republic of China issued its first constitution - the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, which clarified the central government's sovereignty over Tibet. It clearly stipulated that Tibet was a part of the territory of the Republic of China, and stated that "the Han, Manchu, Mongol, Hui and Tibetan peoples are of one, and the five ethnic groups will be of one republic." On July 17 the government set up the Bureau of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs under the State Council. After the Provisional Government of the Republic of China was set up in Nanjing, a Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs was established in 1929 to exercise administrative jurisdiction over Tibet. In 1940 the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs opened an office in Lhasa as the permanent mission of the central government in Tibet. The central government of the Republic of China safeguarded the nation's sovereignty over Tibet in spite of frequent civil wars among warlords in the interior. The 14th Dalai Lama, Dainzin Gyatso, succeeded to the title with the approval of the national government, which waived the lot-drawing convention. No country or government in the world has ever acknowledged the independence of Tibet.