4. Implementing reform and opening up, promoting Tibetan economy to change from a closed one into an open one and from a planned one to a market one.
The 1980s witnessed a great upsurge of the reform, opening-up and modernization drive in Tibet, as in all the other parts of China. In 1980 and 1984, respectively, the Central Authorities held the First and Second Tibet Work Forums, setting the guiding principles for work in the region - focusing on economic development, changing from a closed economy to an open one and from a planned economy to a market one. The central government also formulated a series of special policies for economic development in Tibet, such as "long-term right to use and independently operate land by individual households" and "long-term right to have, raise and manage livestock by individual households," to promote the reform of the region's economic system and its opening-up program. Since 1984, 43 projects have been launched in Tibet with state funds and aid from nine provinces and municipalities. The implementation of the policy of reform and opening up and the state aid have invigorated the Tibetan economy, raised the overall level of industries and the level of commercialization of economic activities in Tibet, and helped Tibet take another step forward in its economic and social development.