Report on China's central, local budgets (2012)

Spending on energy conservation and environmental protection came to 162.303 billion yuan, 102% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 12.5%. This figure consists of 7.419 billion yuan of central government spending and 154.884 billion yuan in transfer payments to local governments. A total of 94.4 billion yuan was spent to conserve energy and reduce emissions. With these funds, we strengthened development of key energy conservation projects capable of saving the equivalent of more than 22 million tons of standard coal each year. We redoubled efforts to implement the project for promoting energy-efficient products for the benefit of the people, putting into use over 5 million kilowatts of energy-efficient electric motors, more than 16 million highly efficient and energy-conserving air-conditioners, and 160 million energy-efficient lighting products, and shut down backward production facilities with a total capacity of 150 million tons at cement plants, 31.22 million tons at iron foundries, and 19.25 million tons at coke works. We carried out major emissions reduction projects, including those to prevent and control water pollution in the watersheds of the Huai, Hai, Liao, and Songhua rivers and Tai, Chao, and Dianchi lakes; constructed 20,000 kilometers of sewer lines to complement urban sewage treatment facilities; and conducted environmental improvement demonstrations in about 10,000 contiguous villages across 17 provincial-level administrative areas. We spent 47.456 billion yuan to implement the second phase of the project for protecting virgin forest resources and consolidate achievements already made in returning farmland to forests and grazing land to grasslands. We spent 13.943 billion yuan to carry forward demonstration projects on the use of new energy in buildings, use biomass energy comprehensively, carry out demonstrations on the use of renewable energy in buildings, and promote the development of a circular economy.

Expenditure on transportation totaled 329.859 billion yuan, 115.1% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 26.9%. This figure consists of 33.111 billion yuan of central government spending and 296.748 billion yuan in transfer payments to local governments. We spent 219.921 billion yuan to strengthen public transportation infrastructure, upgrade or expand 20,000 kilometers of national and provincial highways, improve 1,091 kilometers of inland waterways, and build or upgrade 190,000 kilometers of rural roads. We used 64.148 billion yuan to provide fuel subsidies for urban public transportation and other public service industries. We also provided 26 billion yuan in subsidies to support local governments in phasing out tolls on government-financed Grade II highways.

Expenditure on resource exploration, electricity, and information came to 82.696 billion yuan, 111% of the budgeted figure. This consists of 46.412 billion yuan of central government spending and 36.284 billion yuan in transfer payments to local governments. We used 42.975 billion yuan to strengthen resource exploration, electricity, and information infrastructure. We spent 3.5 billion yuan to support technology R&D and demonstrations for industrial application in strategic emerging industries, carry out major industrial innovation and development projects, and subsidize R&D on high-end equipment manufacturing. We also allocated 10.296 billion yuan to promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in these areas.

Expenditure on stockpiling grain, edible oils, and other materials totaled 89.062 billion yuan, 78.8% of the budgeted figure and a decrease of 2.4%. The difference between the actual and budgeted amounts was mainly due to fewer actual interest payments being made for stockpiling grain. This total consists of 54.008 billion yuan of central government spending and 35.054 billion yuan in transfer payments to local governments. We spent 32.033 billion yuan to completely eliminate local contributions to grain risk funds in major grain-producing areas and cover the shortfalls thus incurred, and to give direct subsidies to grain growers. We used 45.023 billion yuan to steadily raise the minimum purchase prices of wheat and rice, implement the policy for temporarily purchasing and stockpiling canola seeds and soybeans, and increase reserves of petroleum, nonferrous metals, and other important commodities.

National defense spending was 583.597 billion yuan, 100% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 12.6%. This figure consists of 582.962 billion yuan of central government spending and 635 million yuan in transfer payments to local governments. These funds were used to improve living conditions and benefits of officers and enlisted personnel, strengthen informationization of the military, modernize equipment and supporting facilities, and improve the armed forces' ability to respond to emergencies and disasters.

Spending on public security amounted to 169.547 billion yuan, 104.8% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 14.9%. This figure consists of 103.701 billion yuan of central government spending and 65.846 billion yuan in transfer payments to local governments. We pressed ahead with reforming the system of ensuring funding for primary-level procuratorial, judicial, and public security departments to enhance their service capabilities.

It should be noted that decreases in actual expenditure on stockpiling materials such as grain and edible oils and on other items led to a surplus of 25.4 billion yuan in central government expenditure in 2011, which has been transferred to the central budget stabilization fund.

(3) Central government tax rebates and transfer payments to local governments

Central government tax rebates and transfer payments to local governments totaled 3.989996 trillion yuan, 106.9% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 23.4%. This figure consists of 507.838 billion yuan in tax rebates, an increase of 1.7%; 1.829993 trillion yuan in general transfer payments, up 38.3%; and 1.652165 trillion yuan in special transfer payments, a 17.1% increase. General transfer payments for making basic public services more equally available amounted to 748.681 billion yuan; for compulsory education, 106.501 billion yuan; for basic pensions and subsistence allowances, 275.098 billion yuan; for the new rural cooperative medical care system, 77.981 billion yuan; for the award and subsidy system for village-level public works projects, 18.471 billion yuan; for cities once dependent on now-depleted mineral resources, 13.5 billion yuan; and for reforming taxes and fees on refined petroleum products, 58.1 billion yuan.

2) Implementation of main items in local budgets

Main revenue items

Domestic VAT revenue was 598.925 billion yuan, up 15.3%; business tax revenue, 1.350405 trillion yuan, up 22.7%; corporate income tax revenue, 673.854 billion yuan, up 33.5%; individual income tax revenue, 242.103 billion yuan, up 25.2%; revenue from urban construction and maintenance tax, 260.809 billion yuan, up 50.2%; deed transfer tax revenue, 276.361 billion yuan, up 12.1%; and non-tax revenue, 1.134275 trillion yuan, up 43.4%.

Main expenditure items

Local governments spent 1.511706 trillion yuan on education altogether, up 27.8%; 186.423 billion yuan on science and technology, up 17.3%; 170.158 billion yuan on culture, sports, and media, up 22.2%; 629.617 billion yuan on medical and health care, up 33.1%; 1.064141 trillion yuan on social security and employment, up 22.6%; 349.367 billion yuan on guaranteeing housing, up 75.5%; 947.349 billion yuan on agriculture, forestry, and water conservancy, up 22.4%; 764.101 billion yuan on urban and rural community affairs, up 27.8%; and 714.126 billion yuan on transportation, up 78.6%. The above expenditures include appropriations of local governments using tax rebates and transfer payments from the central government.

An analysis of the above expenditures shows that in 2011 governments at all levels spent a total of 3.8108 trillion yuan, a 30.3% increase, in areas that have a direct bearing on people's wellbeing, namely education, medical and health care, social security, employment, guaranteeing adequate housing, and culture; and 3.5629 trillion yuan in areas that are closely related to people's lives, such as agriculture, water conservancy, public transportation, energy conservation, environmental protection, and urban and rural community affairs. Government spending on agriculture, rural areas, and farmers totaled 2.9342 trillion yuan, up 21.2%. This figure consists of 1.0393 trillion yuan for supporting agricultural production; 143.9 billion yuan in direct subsidies to grain growers, general subsidies for agricultural supplies, subsidies for superior crop varieties, and subsidies for purchasing agricultural machinery; 1.624 trillion yuan for developing rural education, health, and other social programs; and 127 billion yuan for expenses related to stockpiling agricultural products and associated interest payments. It should be noted that expenditure on ensuring and improving living standards or on agriculture, rural areas, and farmers do not constitute separate budgetary items. For ease of deliberation, we have combined all expenditure items concerned, so there is some overlap in the statement of expenditure.

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